The data are representative of three independent experiments

The data are representative of three independent experiments. Results Analysis potential glycosylation sites of the HA in H9N2 influenza virus and the generation of the mutant viruses To investigate the variations in NLG sites at amino acid residues 313 and 218, the HA sequences of the H9N2 avian influenza virus isolated in China, deposited in Influenza Virus Resource of NCBI ( before 2017 (date to Jan 1, 2017), were in statistics using DNAstar5.0 software (DNAstar, Madison, WI, USA) (Fig.?1). demonstrated that Radafaxine hydrochloride the glycosylation sites at amino acid residues 313 and 218 were both functional. The absence of the glycosylation site at amino acid residue 218 and the presence of the glycosylation site at amino acid residue 313 increased antibody binding and moderately prevented the virus from escaping neutralization with homologous antisera. Additionally, compared to the F/98 virus (218G+/313G?), the viruses rF/HA218G+/313G+ or rF/HA218G?/313G+ showed significantly increased infectivity of MDCK cells, chicken embryo eggs, and trachea and lung tissue of SPF chickens, but did not display differences in airborne spread in chickens or infectivity of Radafaxine hydrochloride mice compared with its parental virus F/98. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: H9N2, Glycosylation sites, Hemagglutinin, Aa residue 218, Aa residue 313 Introduction The H9N2 avian influenza virus was first detected in the North American turkey in 1966, after which it spread throughout the world, causing huge economic losses in the poultry industry. The antigenic structure of the H9N2 influenza virus has been changing all the time, including changes in N-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein [1]. NLG is a specific post-translational modification of viral surface glycoproteins, HA and neuraminidase (NA), whereby oligosaccharides are attached through N-glycosidic linkages to the Asn residue of the glycosylation motif Asn-X-Ser/Thr-X, where X may represent any amino acid except proline [2]. NLGs from HA protein play Radafaxine hydrochloride an important role on a further structural and functionality modification of influenza A virus (IAV). Glycosylation is essential for protein folding and maturation through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and golgi apparatus [3]. Changes in the number or location of NLG sites in the spherical head of HA protein can affect the biological activity of IAV [4]. NLGs of HA protein regulate the virulence of IAV by adjusting the biological activity of HA in the IAV [5C8]. Furthermore, NLGs allow IAV to evade host antibody recognition [9, 10]. The NLG status of the receptor-binding domain of HA in IAV mediates protective antibody responses against the 1918 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses [11, 12]. Modifying glycosylation sites, especially in the stalk domain, have been explored to broaden the breadth of antibody responses induced by vaccination [13]. HA protein of the IAV is the primary target for neutralizing antibody recognition. NLGs have been shown to shield the antigenic sites in HA and promote the evolution of the virus [1]. Moreover, addition of a NLG was associated with resistance to neutralizing or enhancing growth in vaccinated mice [14]. And, the receptor binding avidity through the addition of NLGs to the HA globular domain was modulated to maintain fitness during antigenic evolution [15]. HA protein of IAV is the major target recognized by neutralizing antibodies and glycans have been proposed to shield antigenic sites on HA, thereby promoting virus survival in the face of widespread vaccination and/or infection [1, 8, 16]. The variations in the glycosylation (abbreviates G) sites at amino acid residues 218 (named 218G+, Asn-Arg-Thr-Phe, NRTF) and 313 (named 313G+, Asn-Cys-Ser-Lys, NCSK) emerged in the process of the evolution of H9N2 avian influenza viruses. There are four phenotype including 218G+/313G?, 218G+/313G+, 218G?/313G+, and 218G?/313G?. 218G+ means the glycosylation site at amino acid residues 218; in contrast, 218G? means no glycosylation site at amino acid Sntb1 residues 218, which are similar to 313G. And we propose the hypotheses that the variations in NLG sites of HA protein in H9N2 influenza virus might affect the biological characteristics of the H9N2 influenza virus. In this study, two reassortment viruses were generated by the reverse genetics system of influenza virus based on the F/98 virus backbone, a 218G+/313G? virus, and named rF/HA218G+/313G+ and rF/HA 218G+/313G?, respectively. The effect of the variations in NLG sites on the H9N2 influenza virus was explored in antibody binding, and infectivity of embryonated eggs of specific-pathogen-free (SPF), MDCK cells, or SPF chickens. Materials and methods Ethics statement All animal experiments were approved by the Jiangsu Administrative Committee for Laboratory Animals (permission number SYXK-SU-2007-0005) and complied with the Jiangsu Laboratory Animal Welfare and Ethics guidelines of the Jiangsu Administrative Committee of Laboratory Animals. All experiments were performed under biosafety level 2 (BSL2). All generated viruses included the variations in the glycosylation sites at.