However, numerous studies have shown that clinicians consistently failed to achieve the full treatment potential that oral anticoagulation could bring to those AF individuals who stood to benefit

However, numerous studies have shown that clinicians consistently failed to achieve the full treatment potential that oral anticoagulation could bring to those AF individuals who stood to benefit.18 Furthermore, although the use of VKA therapy had increased since 1980, and the proportion of individuals receiving no therapy offers decreased, many individuals with AF received either antiplatelet therapy (10C56 %, median 30 %30 %) or no therapy (4C48 %, median 18 %). of major bleeding, intracranial haemorrhage and cardiovascular death. A Purpureaside C two-tiered dosing option may present clinicians with a further part of choice for the individual patient. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, edoxaban, stroke prevention, CHA2DS2-VASc, novel oral anticoagulants, ENGAGE-AF, NOAC The intro of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) offers widened the treatment options for oral anticoagulation in stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Recommendations for the management of non-valvular AF have changed to reflect the emerging evidence of their relative security and efficacy compared with warfarin (observe em Table 1 /em ).1C6 Table 1: Novel Dental Anticoagulants Compared with Warfarin in Recent Atrial Fibrillation Tests C RELY, ROCKET-AF, ARISTOTLE and ENGAGE-AF Effect on End result Event Versus WarfarinD150D110RivaApixEdo60Edo30Non-inferiority stroke/SESuperiority for 1 endpoint of stroke/SEReduction haemorrhagic stroke/ICHReduction ischaemic Purpureaside C stroke()Reduction all-cause mortality()Reduction in CV mortalityReduction major bleedingReduction major and minor bleedsIncreased gastrointestinal bleedsIncreased myocardial infarction??? Open in a separate windowpane RELY = Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy; ROCKET-AF = Rivaroxaban Once Daily Dental Direct Element Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation; ARISTOTLE = Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Additional Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation; ENGAGE-AF = Effective Anticoagulation With Element Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation; D150 = dabigatran at 150 mg twice daily dose; D110 = dabigatran at 110 mg twice daily dose; Riva = rivaroxaban; Apix = apixaban; Edo60 = edoxaban at 60 mg once IL8RA daily dose; Edo30 = edoxaban at 30 mg once daily dose. CV = cardiovascular; ICH = intracranial haemorrhage; SE = systemic embolism NOACs are now licensed for stroke prevention in individuals with non-valvular AF in many countries around the world as an alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Recent recommendations incorporating the NOACs often refer directly or indirectly to the augmented CHADS2 score or CHA2DS2-VASc score, advising that additional non-CHADS2 stroke risk factors (including age 65C74 years, female gender and vascular disease) may also influence choice and combine to favour a decision to initiate anticoagulation. What Do Recent Recommendations Say? The 2012 American College of Chest Physicians guidelines suggest the use of dabigatran 150 mg twice daily rather than warfarin where an oral anticoagulant (OAC) is recommended (i.e. for individuals having a CHADS2 = 1 or CHADS2 2). Back-up dual antiplatelet therapy may be regarded as for individuals unsuitable for OAC therapy.1 Only dabigatran is mentioned, as at the time of publication only dabigatran was licensed in North America for stroke prevention in AF. The 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society focused guideline upgrade suggests that when OAC Purpureaside C therapy is definitely indicated, most individuals should receive dabigatran or rivaroxaban in preference to warfarin (i.e. for individuals having a CHADS2 = 1 or CHADS2 2).2 The 2012 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Technology Advisory recommend for individuals having a CHADS2 1, dabigatran 150 mg twice daily as an alternative to warfarin in renally competent individuals, or apixaban 5 mg twice daily in individuals considered appropriate for warfarin but who have no more than one of the following characteristics: weight 60 kg; age 80 years; and serum creatinine 1.5 mg/dl (i.e. who did not require the dose reduction to 2.5 mg twice daily). For individuals having a CHADS2 score 2, rivaroxaban 20 mg daily is considered a reasonable alternative to warfarin.3 The 2013 Scottish Intercollegiate Recommendations Network (SIGN) guidelines recommend that individuals with non-valvular AF who have a CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1 1 should consider taking warfarin or a NOAC, taking into account patient preference; while antiplatelet therapy should only be Purpureaside C considered where warfarin or one of the novel anticoagulants has been declined. The SIGN guidelines are less specific in suggesting which NOAC is preferred, although they recognised.